Creating a bot for Checkers

In the previous post, we learnt about adversarial search. Before we relax more assumptions on search problems and move on to general games, let’s first see how we can create a bot for a zero-sum game, in particular, checkers.

Checkers State

Checkers or Draughts is a strategy board game for two players, played on an 8×8 chess board. There is a challenge on Hackerrank for creating a checkers bot. You can read the problem statement and the input/output format there. We’ll try to solve that challenge in this post.

Continue reading

Advertisements

Adversarial Search

So far we’ve talked about uninformed and informed search algorithms. That should be it, right? Both of them combined should cover the space of all search algorithms, no? Well, unfortunately not. We’ve made some strong assumptions in everything discussed so far. We had assumed that search problems had following properties:

  • Single agent: There is only one agent (player).
  • Deterministic actions: There is no randomness i.e., an action in a given state has the same effect every time.
  • Fully observed state: The agent has perfect information about the world.
  • Discrete state space: States evolve only in response to the actions taken by the agent and not as a function of time.

Let’s relax one of these constraints and allow multiple agents instead of only one. A major class of multiple-agent search problems is the space of fixed-sum games, which are necessarily adversarial (since the total utility is fixed, the players must compete with each-other to maximize their utilities). An important special case of adversarial games is two-player, zero-sum, deterministic, perfect-information games, e.g., chess, checkers, tic-tac-toe etc.

Continue reading